1. X beet
2. ✓ step
3. ✓ pat
4. X look
5. ✓ tip
6. ✓ stack
7. ✓ loft
8. ✓ top
9. ✓ cut
10. X rope
Chapter 5 | Exercises
What kinds of items seem the easiest to elicit, and what items the most difficult?
- The production of the vowel in ten and tin.
- The production of the first vowel in ferry, fairy, and furry.
- The production of the vowel in caught and cot.
- The plural form of deer.
- The past tense and participle form (e.g. has______) of creep.
- The use of indefinite forms in a negative sentence (e.g. He didn’t go anywhere/nowhere).
- The use of the term frying pan, skillet, spider, etc.
- The use of ATM/bank machine/cash machine/guichet.
- Distinctions between different shades of purple in the color spectrum.
There are three types of answer: (1) Northern Cities Shift, (2) Southern Shift, and (3) both the Northern Cities and the Southern Shift, but rotating in different directions. In cases where the same vowel is subject to both the Northern and Southern Shift, identify the direction of the rotation for each shift. You might try producing some of these vowel differences, especially if you know someone who is a good model for the particular shift.
Can you think of other examples in which a particular regional pronunciation only seems to affect one word, as with aunt/ant and greasy/greazy? (Hint: Consider the way natives of a particular city or state may pronounce its name). There are some linguists who would say that pronunciation differences in greasy/greazy and aunt/ant are actually lexical rather than phonological, since they affect only one item and are not the result of general phonological processes. Do you agree?
While not an exhaustive list (hopefully you have thought of some of your own), here are a few more examples to get you thinking:
both vs. bolth (Northern Cities)
creak vs. crick (various)
Boise vs. Boize (from Boise vs. not from Boise)
bison vs. bizon (prim. Fargo, ND area)