1. “x” means “unknown” in math register
2. The predicate comes before the subject in math register
3. “such that” means “so” in math register
4. “such that”
5. Prepositional phrase comes at end of questions in math register (instead of “What is the cost of one international phone call per minute” they ask “What is the cost per minute of…” Prepositions seem to be involved a lot, as well as jargon.
Chapter 10 | Exercises
Are there any qualitative differences in linguistic form (for example, phonology, grammar)?
What kinds of differences are there in language‐use conventions when different audiences are addressed (for example, speaker–audience interplay, salutations)?
Are there particular features with social or situational associations that the speaker might be manipulating (for example, multiple negation)?
What kinds of dialect or register features do not appear to be manipulated? (For example, are irregular verbs shifted?)
What parts of speech seem to be especially affected in this register?
- Does each real number x have a subtractive inverse?
- The sum of two integers is 20 and one integer is 8 greater than the other. Find the integers.
- Find consecutive even integers such that the sum of the first and third is 134.
- Find three consecutive odd integers such that the sum of the last two is 7 less than three times the first.
- Under one particular phone plan, each minute of phone conversation from Europe to the United States costs 50 cents more than each international text message. One month Professor Thorn’s record of phone usage showed 30 text messages to the United States and 42 minutes’ worth of phone calls to the United States. The total bill was $57.00. What is the cost per minute of one international phone call?
1. “x” means “unknown” in math register
- David and myself often work together.
- Please give the ticket to myself.
- Between Marge and myself, we should be able to raise the kids.
- This book was really written by the students and ourselves.
- I arranged for myself to leave early.
- He brought the project to myself for review.
- The students often give a party for the other faculty and myself.
In the above examples, the reflexive pronoun myself is frequently affected by hypercorrection. You very well might have hesitated over the usage of myself as you read these sentences! Part of what makes the use of myself so frequently subject to hypercorrection is that it is associated with MAE as well as syntactically complex. Typically a reflexive pronoun is an Object that reflects its Subject, so that in (5) above (I arranged for myself to leave early) myself reflects the subject I. If the subject does not clearly include a first person pronoun (even if it is implied) then we might hesitate and, depending on the social context (e.g., a formal context), be more likely to hypercorrect.
If you were to place these three recordings on the following continuum, where would you place each one?
More mainstream ←‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐→ Less mainstream
Which linguistic features (phonological and/or grammatical) stood out to you and helped you place the recordings on the continuum?
Using the Inventory of Distinguishing Dialect Features in the Appendix, as well as what you have learned so far about the features of various regional, social, ethnic, and gender‐based varieties in the United States, select a feature and conduct a quantitative analysis of its patterning (i.e. number of occurrences of the feature out of all possible occurrences; see Chapter 6, sections 6.4–6.5 for details) in the speech of the interviewee in each of the two interviews. For example, you might choose to examine the use of [d] for [ð], as in dis for this. If you are interviewing a Southerner, you might examine ungliding of the price vowel, as in tahm for time.
What was the usage level for the feature in each interview (percentage usage)?
Did the interviewee show different usage levels for the feature in the two interviews? Why or why not?
Did you notice different usage levels in different sections of the interview, perhaps based on topic?
Referring back again to how to conduct a quantitative analysis in Chapter 6, do you think linguistic considerations in addition to stylistic ones may have affected your results (e.g. following linguistic environment)?
What about factors other than the demographic characteristics of the two parties in each interview?